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Acadia: A Land without Boundaries 
To some, Acadia is a remote corner of New Brunswick, to others, a historic area of Nova Scotia's Annapolis Valley. Many believe it includes the three Maritime provinces and even extends into Québec. Although it is not shown on modern maps, Acadia occupies a special place in the hearts and minds of more than a quarter of a million people who proudly proclaim their Acadian heritage with a flag, an anthem, and a national day. 
There is confusion about Acadia's origin and meaning, and a few people agree on the exact area it encompasses. Yet it is a name of extensive geographical, historical, and cultural significance. 
The name of Acadia can be traced to the discoveries of Giovanni de Verrazzano, who explored the coast of North American in 1524. He was struck by the beauty of Chesapeake Bay, calling it Archadia, a variation of Arcadia, the pastoral paradise of the Greek and Roman classics. 
If Verrazzano produced a map of his voyage, none has survived. However, the places he named during his travels are shown on a 1527 map by Vesconte de Maggiolo, although Arcadia does not appear on it. The variation, Larcadia, first appeared on a 1548 map by Giacomo Gastaldi. He located it near what we now call Cape Cod. In the 1560s, another Italian map shifted Larcadia to the northeast, where it supplanted Tierra de los Bretons. In 1575, French historian André Thevet changed the name to Arcadie.
In 1599, King Henry IV of France appointed Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit lieutenant-general of Canada, the coasts of 'Lacadie' and other areas of New France for ten years. This commission was transferred to Pierre du Gua de Monts four years later. De Monts used Lacadie in his petition to the king to undertake the exploration and colonization of New France. 
A 1601 map by French cartographer Guillaume Levasseur used the name Coste de Cadie for what is now Maine. Two years later, Samuel de Champlain wrote a report entitled Des Sauvages in which he used Arcadie for the area we now call the Maritimes. In the early years of the seventeenth century, the form l'Acadie became common in documents and on maps referring to Port-Royal and other settlements around the Bay of Fundy.
From the late 1620s to 1763, Acadia was an undefined territory east of New England and southeast of New France. The inhabitants of French extraction, cut off from other French colonies and with little
immigration from their homeland, developed a distinctive Acadian culture. After their forced expulsion to the United States and Europe in 1755, and the subsequent return of many to the region, their Acadian heritage was reaffirmed.
After 1763, the name Acadia was superseded by Nova Scotia, which applied to New Brunswick and peninsular Nova Scotia as we know them today. Later, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, the southern Gaspé coast, and even Îles de la Madeleine were considered parts of Acadia
Recent writers, such as Naomi Griffiths and Jean-Claude Dupont, often acknowledge the European evidence of Acadia's origins, but then proceed to suggest the name is derived from a Native name for their lands, or from the Micmac expression for 'plenty', 'fertile,' or 'camping place.' The first reference to a possible Micmac origin may ahve been made by Thomas Chandler Haliburton, a Nova Scotia writer, judge, and politician, in his A General Description of Nova Scotia, published in 1823. In 1849, Nova Scotia scientist Abraham Gesner stated in The Industrial Resources of Nova Scotia that 'the terms Cadie and l'Acadie have evidently been derived from the Micmac akade - a place.' The first protest against the Aboriginal origin for Acadia was lodged in 1896 by the renowned New Brunswick naturalist William F. Ganong, in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada. But twenty years later, he was disappointed to learn that few scholars agreed with him.
After 1917, most historians and writers acknowledged the European source as being correct, although historical geographer Andrew Clark wrote in 1968: 'Perhaps the most sensible conclusion is that the cartographic ancestry of Arcadie for various parts of the coast of eastern and northeastern North America prepared the way for the acceptance of "Cadie", "La Cadie", "L'Acadie" and so "Acadie" from its Indian source.' I believe the converse is true: place names ending with the Micmac expression a-kaa'-di-k, meaning 'occurrence place,' were spelled with the suffix -acadie by early explorers and map makers, reflecting the region's name of European origin. A few examples of such renditions are Chebenacadie (for Shubenacadie River, N.S.) and Tracadie (for Tracadie Bay, P.E.I.), shown on a French map drawn in 1744.
Acadians have contributed substantially to the Cajun culture of Louisiana, where there is a parish called Acadia. Acadia National Park is in the state of Maine, east of the mouth of the Penobscot River. As well, Acadia and Acadie have survived in numerous place-names, including Acadieville, N.B., L'Acadie, west of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Que., and New Acadia, P.E.I. Acadia University in Wolfville, N.S., received its charter as Acadia College in 1841. From 1924 to 1966, Acadia was a federal electoral riding in central Alberta; it probably received its name from the little community of Acadia Valley, 150 kilometres northeast of Medicine Hat, where Nova Scotians had settled in 1910. In 1990, the federal riding of Gloucester, N.B., was changed to Acadie-Bathurst to reflect its culture. The riding embraces the Acadian Peninsula, where more than 60,000 Acadians live.
Some contemporary writers have suggested that New Brunswick, where the vast majority of Acadians live today, is the centre of modern Acadia, and have looked to Moncton and its university as its focal point. But the soul of Acadia resides in many small towns and villages, such as Caraquet and Cap-Pelé in New Brunswick; Urbainville in Prince Edward Island; and Pubnico, Comeauville, and Chéticamp in Nova Scotia.
Many may regret that Acadia is not a country, with borders and legal institutions. But as the successor of the fabled beautiful land of the classics, perhaps it is best that modern Acadia resides in the hearts and souls of a people with a proud social and cultural heritage based on nearly four centuries of settlement in Eastern Canada. No matter where Acadians dwell, their rich literature, language, and music will tell them they are in Acadia.

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HUGUENOT & PROTESTANT REFORMED CHRONOLOGY

Compiled by Charles H. (Chuck) Bobo, 24000 Alicia Pkwy., Ste. 12, MISSION VIEJO, CA 92691, 
from several source documents, which did not always agree on the date of the same event. 
Among the principal books researched for this compilation were: 

"Huguenot Ancestry" by Noel Currer--Briggs and Royston Gambier. 

"The Huguenots: Their Settlements, Churches and Industries in England and Ireland" by Samuel Smiles. 

"Huguenot Emigration to America" by Charles W. Baird.
 
Dates/Event 
1440-
1455       
Guttenberg's invention of moveable type enabled printing and distribution of Bible and other information to the masses, which enabled works of Martin Luther and otreformers to be circulated throughout Europe. 

ca. 1500        
Erasmus (
1467-1563) 
begins to write and preach to reform the church. 

1512            
Jacques le Fevre (Jacobus Faber) writes Aaneti Pauli Epistolas. 

1515            
Accession of Francis I of France. 

1516            
Concordat of Bologna. 

1521            
Martin Luther proclaims documents of Reformation. 

1523            
First French translation of the Bible. 
After 

1525      
John Calvin led Protestant Reformation in France and Switzerland. 

1526            
Tyndale's English version of the New Testament printed in Antwerp. 

1529            
Louis de Berquin burnt at the stake. 

1534            
Protestant placard campaign in Paris.  
Calvin settles in Basle, Switzerland. 

1535            
Edict banning all heretics in France. 
First refugees leave France.  
Publication of Tyndale and Coverdale Bible in English in Hamburg. 

1538            
Foundation of the French Protestant church at Strasbourg. 

1539            
Bernard Palissy settles at Saintes. 

1540            
First substantial Huguenot settlements in Kent and Suxxes, England. French trading station established at Sheepshead Bay, NY.  (Called Angouleine). 

1541            
French forts established near Quebec. 

1545            
Jean de Maynier, baron d'Oppede, orders massacre of Waldensians at Merindol and Cabrieres.  
Protestants massacreed in 22 French towns and 14 members of Protestant church at Mejux burned at stake over religion. 

1547            
Death of Henry VIII of England; 
accesion of Edward VI. 
Death of Francis I of France; 
accesion of Henry II. 
Protestantism established officially in England. 
Increased immigration of Huguenots to Kent, especially Canterbury.  
Chambre Ardente established in Paris. 

1548            
Large groups of French Huguenots began escaping to Channel Islands.  
First Huguenot congregation estalised at Canterbury by Jan Utehove and Francois de la Riviere of Orleans. 
1550            
Temple of Jesus licensed, earliest foreign Protestant Church in London.  
Church of St. Anthony's Hospital in Threeadneedle Street, London, given to French Huguenots. 

June 27, 
1551   
Edict of Chateaubriand placed severe restrictions on Protestants, including loss of one-third of property to informers and confiscation of all property of those who left France.  
"Heretical" books were forbidden or censored. 

1553            
Death of Edward VI; 
accesion of Mary I of England. 
Dispersion of London Protestants; 
persecution of English Protestants begins. 

1555            
French Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, Huguenot leader, envisions French Portestant colony in Brazil.  
King Henry II consented and colony was wiped out in 

1557 
by the Portuguese.  
First Huguenot consistory in Paris. 

Sept., 
1555     
First Protestant Church in Paris, France, organized in a home.  
Date sometimes given as 1556. 

1556            
Philip II succeeds to throne of Spain. 

1558            
Death of Mary I of England; 
accession of Elizabeth I. 

1559            
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis. 
First national synod of the Reformed Churches of France in Paris at which 15 Protestant churches are represented. 
Death of Henry II; 
accession of Francis II of France.. 

1560            
Conspiracy of Amboise to kill the king of France fails. 
Edict of Romorantin lays interdict on Protestantism. Meeting of States General at Orleans.  
Death of Francis II; 
accession of Charles IX of France. 

July, 
1561      
Royal edict authorizes imprisonment and confiscation of property upon all who attend any "heretical" (non-Roman Catholic) public or private worship service.  Beginning of new influx of refugees to Kent from Low Countries, Picardy, Artois and Flanders.  Coiloque of Poissy attempts to bring about a modus vevendi between Catholics and Protestants in France. 

Jan., 
1562      
Royal edict of Saint-Germain recognizes new religion as legal and offers some protection.  Massacre of Vassy. First battle of civil war in France at Dreux.  Siege of Rouen. 

Feb. 18, 
1562   
French colonists, mostly Protestants, set sail to start colony in Florida. 

Mar., 
1562      
Masacree of Protestants at Vassy starts first Civil War in France over religion.  Forces of Duke of Guise attachedd a Protestant assembly in one of the towns of Champagne and killed some 50 to 60 worshipers. First battle of civil war at Dreux. 

1563          
Assassination of Francis, duke of Guise. 
Pacification of Amboise. 

1564            
French settlement at Fort Caroline, Florida, founded. Treaty of Troyes. 

Sept., 
1565     
Spanish forces captured Fort Caroline and slaughtered all inhabitants. 

1567            
Seige of Saint-Denis. 
Death of Montmorency. 

1567-
1568       
Huguenot thread and lace makers established in Maidstone, England.  
Others escaped to Cranfield in Bedfordshire and others to the shires of Oxford, Northampton and Cambridge. 
Huguenots established glassworks in London during this period. 

1568            
Treaty of Longjumeau. 
Fort Caroline recaptured by French. 

1569            
Battle of Jarnac.  
Death of Conde.  
Battle of Montcontour. 
Peace of St. Germain. 

1570            
Henry of Navarre affianced to Marguerite de Valois. 

1572            
Anglo-French Treaty of Blois.  
Death of Jeanne d'Albret, queen of Navarre.  
Marriage of Henry of Navarre and Marguerite deValois. 
Aug. 24, 
1572   
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in Paris and elsewhere in France in which thousands of Huguenots were lulled into a sense of false safety by King Charles IX and Queen Mother Catherine and slaughtered.  
Duc de Guise (Henri I de Lorraine) personally killed Admiral Gaspard de Coligny.  
Slaughter continues until October.  
Civil War Begins. 

1573            
Duke of Anjou elected king of Poland.  
Edict of Boulonge. 

1574            
Death of Charles IX; 
accession of Henry III of France. 
Huguenot settlement at Winchester, England, moved to Canterbury.  Truce with Huguenots in France. 

1575            
Confederation of Milhaud. 

1576            
Formation of the Holy League.  
Peace of Monsieur and defeat of Henry III.  
War renewed. 

1577            
Peace of Bergerac. 

1579            
Peace of Fleix.  
Ordonnance of Blois. 

1584            
Death of duke of Anjou; 
Henry of Navarre becomes heir to the throne of France.  
Duke of Guise proclaims Cardinal de Bourbon heir apparent.  
Treaty of Joinville. 

1585            
Henry III forced to surrender to the League and the Guises. 
Treaty of Nemours.  
Outbreak of the War of the Three Henrys. 

1586            
Truce of Saint-Brice. 

1587            
Execution of Mary, queen of Scots.  
Battle of Coutras. 
Battle of Auneau. 

1588            
Day of the Barricades.  
Spanish Armada.  
Edict of Union. 
Duke of Guise and cardinal of Guise 
assassinated at Blois. 

1589            
Henry III assassinated; 
accession of Henry of Navarre as Henry IV of France.  Death of Catherine de Medici.  
Battle of Arques.  
Death of Cardinal de Bourbon (Charles X). 

1590            
Battle of Ivy.  
Seige of Paris. 

1592            
Battle of Aumale. 

1593            
States General meet in Paris to elect king.  
Henry IV converted to Catholicism. 

1594            
Henry IV crowned at Cartres.  
Henry IV enters Paris. 

1595          
Defeat of Spanish at Fontaine-Francaise. 

1596            
Conference of Notables at Rouen. 

1597            
Spanish capture Amiens.  
French recapture Amiens. 

1598            
Peace of Vervins.  
Death of Philip II of Spain.  

Apr. 13, 
1598  
Edict of Nantes proclaimed returning civil and 
religious freedom to Protestants.  
So strong were Protestants in LaRochelle that Roman Catholic mass had not been said in 40 years.  Huguenots, for a time, became a strong political power in France.  
End of Franco-Spanish War.  
Sable Island colony of Nova Scotia founded. 

1599            
Pierre Charivia was commissioned by King Henry IV to colonize North America and established trading posts on St. Lawrence River in Canada. 

1600            
Tadoussac on the St. Lawrence founded.  
Spanish defeated at Nieuport. 

1603            
Pierre du Gua, sieur de Monts, a Huguenot, was granted royal permission to possess and settle North America from the 40th to 46th degree North Latitude for 10 years. (Acadia, later Nova Scotia).  
Death of Elizabeth I of England and 
acession of James I. 

1605--
1613      
Several French refugee merchants had settled in Dublin and Waterford in Ireland. 

1607        
Jamestown, VA, English colony established. 

Summer, 
1607    
Trade priviliges for de Monts withdrawn by king and Port Royal abandoned. 

Summer, 
1608    
Samuel de Champlain landed at what is now Quebec City and established trading post.  
Religious liberty was unrestricted and trade prospered. 

1609            
Group of Flemish Huguenots settled in Canongate, Scotland. Disrupted succession to the duchy ofCleves. 
By 
1609         
French Huguenots established manufacture of cloth in north and west of England in Worcester, Evesham, Droitwich, Kiddeminster, Stroud and Glastonbury and in east at Colchester, Hereford and Stamford.  Colchester had 1,300 Walloon citizens by 1609.  
In the north of England, Huguenot establishments made coatings at Manchester, Bolton and Halifax and cloth caps and woollen stockings at Kendal. 

May 14, 
1610    
King Henry IV of France killed by assassin; 
accession ov Louis XIII.  
Duke de Rohan becomes leader of the Huguenots. Alliance with Evangelical Union of Swabisch.  
De Mon surrendered his colonization rights in North America which were purchased by Antoinette de Pons, a lady of honor to the queen and an intense devotee of Church of Rome and supporter of Society of Jesus (Jesuits). 

1613            
By this time Jesuits controlled religion in Acadia and restricted Protestants. 

1614            
Jean Dankerts (Jean Verassen) was first white man born on Manhattan island. 

1616            
Treaty of Loudon. 

1618            
Cardinal Richelieu publishes "Principal Points of Faith of the Catholic Church." 

1619            
Sir William Sandys reports on "our Frenchmen" in the Virginia colony.  
Huguenot Church of Bearn rejects Decree of Restitution.  
La Rochelle supports Bearnaise resistance to Louis XIII. 

1620            
Sieges of Montauban and Montpellier. 
Death of duke of Luynes.  
Defection of Sully, La Force and Chatillion to the Catholics. 

1621            
Jesse de Forest's request to settle in English colonies turned down by Sir Dudley Carleton.  
Instead they were directed to NY. 

Sept., 
1621     
English under King James I, laid claim to much of Canada east of St. Croix River and south of St. Lawrence, including much of Acadia (Nova Scotia). 

1621 to 
1627    
Religious toleration still existed in Quebec and area and Huguenot merchants prospered. 

1622            
Archbishoip Laud attempts to compel refugees to conform to Angelican liturgy.  
Siege of Montpellier abandoned and peace signed. 

March, 
1623     
Sailing ship New Nederlandt sailed with 30 families from Texel River, Holland, for New Amsterdam.  
Four Huguenot families left New Amsterdam and settled settled near "Trenton Falls" on the Delaware River in Delaware, but returned to New Amsterdam because of Indian attacks.  Other later early settlements were destroyed by Indians. 

1624            
Richelieu given seat on Royal Council and appointed chief minister to Louis XIII. 

1625            
Huguenot settlers established along the James River in VA. 

1625-
1686       
Huguenots sought refuge in French colonies in Lesser Antilles of Caribbean -- St. Christopher, Guadeloupe, Martinique. 

1626            
Jesuits joined Franciscans in Quebec and religious turmoil began as privileges were withdrawn for Huguenots.  Trade declined.  Cardinal Richelieu was rising to power in France as he moved to reduce the political power of Huguenots. Siege of La Rochelle begins.  Manhattan Island bought from Indians by Peter Minuet, a Huguenot.  Permanent settlement 
established at Salem, MA, included Huguenots. 

1627            
King Charles I of England declared himself a friend of French Huguenots. 

1628            
English fleet sent to relieve Huguenots at La Rochelle, which had been under blockade by French troops under Louis XIII.  
Relief failed and La Rochelle fell to French troops on Oct.  8, 
1628.  
Acadia (Nova Scotia) fell to English. 

By 1628         
There were 300 inhabitants of New Amsterdam, mostly Huguenots.  
First Huguenot Church established on Manhattan Island. 

1629            
Huguenots in England ask for permission from 
King Charles I to settle in Carolinas and set sail in 
1630, 
but were landed in VA.  Massachusetts Bay Company charter granted. 

Jan. 
1629       
Some 50 settlers left England to establish, Charlestown, MA.  
Sir Robert Heath's Carolina charter granted. Baltimore decides to settle on the Chesapeake.  
Peace of Alais ends civil war in France and Huguenots cease to exist as a political force. 

June 27, 
1629   
French King Charles I, granted to Baron de Sauce permission to establish a colony on the lower James River in VA. 

July 20, 
1629   
Quebec surrendered to English forces after the English war with France was officially over. 

Sept. 24, 
1630  First ship of de Sauce's French emigrants arrived at Southampton Hundred on the James River, but the colony did not prosper and they believed to have dispersed. 

1632            
English returned Quebec to France with Emery de Caen, son of Gullaume, sieur de la Mothe, as governor.  Lord Baltimore's Maryland charter granted.  Louis XIII bans all Huguenots from Canada. 

23 May, 
1633
Champlain again appointed governor of French Canada and returned Jesuits to religious power.  From this time, Canada was formerly closed to Protestant colonists.  While some Huguenot traders were allowed to remain, permanent residency was granted to none but Frenchmen of the Roman Catholic faith, marking the beginning of a steady decline of the economy with some Huguenots escaping to Nova Scotia and the British colonies.  Huguenot merchants in France continued to trade with those remaining in Quebec. 

1633            
Archbishop Laud appointed to head commission for regulating colonies. 

By 1634         
Some 20 villages established in Boston, MA, area, including Charlestown, Newton, Watertown, Roxbury and Dorchester. 

1642            
Death of Richelieu. 

1643            
Death of Louis XIII; accession of Louis XIV.  Louis XIV guarantees Edict of Nantes.  Mazarin prevents clamour for revocation. 

1647            
Dutch establish refreshment station at Table Bay. 

1648            
Outbreak of Fronde in France.  
Treaty of Westphalia. 

1650            
Jan van Riebeck established permanent settlement at Table Bay. 

Feb. 25, 
1651   
Acadia (Nova Scotia) again surrendered to English. 

1654            
Beginning of Huguenot emigration on a large scale to North America. 

1658            
New Harlem founded. 

1659            
Treaty of the Pyrenees. 

1659 & 
1671     
Virginia passed acts allowing for naturalization of non- British in the colony. 

1660      
Restoration of Charles II to English throne. 

1661  
Death of Cardinal Mazarin.  
Beginning of serious persecution of Huguenots and infringement of Edict of Nantes. 

From 
1661       
Series of proclamations seriously restricted terms of Edict of Nantes.  Protestant schools and churches were abolished and "dragonnardes" began, billeting French troops in Huguenot homes to spy upon the inhabitants.  
Escaping Huguenots were welcomed in many countries of Europe -- England, Holland, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden.  At one time, more French resided in Berlin than Germans. 

1662    
Jean Touton's colony in Massachusetts founded. 

1663            
Carolinas Grant from King Charles II of England to eight proprietors. 

6 Sept., 
1664   
New Netherland became an English colony and name changed to New York. 

1665     
First Dutch church registers in South Africa. 

1670            
Three ships arrived in Carolinas carrying settlers from London, mostly Huguenots. 

1677  
Huguenots purchased land on which New Platz, NY, 
established. 

1678            
Peace of Nijmegen.  
Attacks on Huguenots across France. 

Apr. 30, 
1680   
Ship "Richmond" arrives from England at Charles Town, SC, with 75 French Protestants. 

1681            
William Penn Jr. receives grant of Pennsylvania England's King Charles II.  Collections made in England for needy French refugees. 

1682            
Pierre Daile sent to minister to American Huguenots. 

Oct., 
1682      
Penn made Philadelphia the capital of the Province of Pennsylvania. 

1683            
Dragonnardes organized to harrass Huguenots in France. 

Apr. 18, 
1685   
Landgrave Charles of Hesse-Cassel was the first of the German princes to offer asylum to the Huguenots from France. 

Oct., 
1685      
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by King Louis XIV.  Many more Canadian Huguenots escaped to New England, from where they continued to trade with Canada. After Revocation, some 80,000 French manufacturers and workmen fled to the British Isles, bring such industries as paper making, silk makers, tanners, furniture making, silver smithing.  England became an exporter, rather than an importer of such items as velvets, satins, silks, taffetas, laces, gloves, buttons, serge cloth, beaver and felt hats, linen, ironware, cutlery, feathers, fans, girdles, pins, needles, combs, soap, viengar and many more items manufacturered by the new Huguenot citizens.  
But life in another country was not without its problems, not only of language but also when the hard-working, frugal Huguenots came into competition with the citizens. 

Oct., 
1686      
Group of French Huguenots established Frenchtown, RI, 10 miles inland from Narragansett Bay.  

By 
1691, their neighbors had driven all but two families from the town. 

1687            
Huguenot Relief Committee in London aided 600 Huguenots in their move to VA. 

1687            
Huguenots granted permission for Huguenot church in Boston on 

Nov. 24, 
1687. Was completed in 1716.  
It later became an Anglican Church and later a Roman Catholic Church and the site now is occupied by a Boston bank. 

1687            
Huguenots had built their church in Charlestown, SC. 

1690            
French Huguenots from VA established permanent settlement on the Pamlico River in NC. 

1692            
William Penn Jr. was given land which became Delaware by the Duke of York. 

1700            
Some 700 emigrants led by Marquis de la Muce landed in Virginia and started Manakintown settlement.  First ship to land was the "Mary Ann," which cleared from London on April 19, 
1700, and arrived at Hampton, VA, on July 23.  The "Peter and Anthony" landed Oct. 6, 
1700; and the fourth was the "Nassau" or "Nasseau," which landed March 5, 
1701.Little is known of the third ship. 

1704            
French Huguenots founded town of Bath, NC, on Pamlico River. 

By 1707         
400 refugee Huguenot families had settled in Scotland. Helped establish the Scottish weaving trade. 

1710            
Huguenots settled on the Trent and Neuse Rivers in NC and other Huguenots from Switzerland and Palatine Germany established New Bern, NC, soon thereafter. 

Jan. 
1733       
Gen. James Oglethorp, chief trustee of Georgia, arrived with 120 settlers, many of whom were Huguenots, at Yamacraw Bluffs on the Savannah River.  Within four years the population had grown to 1,000. 

1740            
By act of English Parliament, alien immigrants into the colonies receive British citizenship. 

1755            
Acadians expelled from Nova Scotia. 

1763            
Treaty of Paris gave Britain control over 13 colonies. 

1775            
British government suspends emigration upon outbreak of hostilities in the colonies. 

1790            
First official census in the United States was 3,277,000 inhabitants. 
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CAJUN JOE TELLS A STORY AT BAYOU BLUE ~ A CONFEDERATE CAJUN SOLDIER

Back during the War for Southern Independence, 
a Cajun, who had fought for the Confederate States of America in the South's greatest western victory at Chickamauga, Georgia, had been captured in a battle subsequent to that battle.
He was imprisoned in Illinois and forced on work detail. All day long, at the top of his lungs, he keep repeating:
"Man, I'm gonna told you yankees, we really kicked ya'll's butts down in Chickamauga! If we had more supplies, we'd run ya'll all the way back where ya'll came from."
The Camp Commander told his Sergeant to pass a message to this CAJUN to shut his mouth. The next day, there was the Cajun on work detail again:
"Man, I'm gonna told you yankee boys, we really tore ya'll up down there in Chickamauga!
If we had a few more men, we'd-a run ya'll all the way up to Acadie!"
The Camp Commander ordered his men to bring the Cajun to his headquarters. They did so.
The yankee Commander asked the Cajun, "don't you realize you're losing the war?"
The Cajun replied, "I don't know 'bout dat, but I know dis, down there in Chickamauga, we kicked ya'll's butts."
The yankee Commander offered the Cajun, "If you just keep your mouth shut, we'll make you a sergeant in the union army, and give you a pretty, new uniform, and you won't have to be on work detail anymore. In fact, we'll make you the sergeant of the guard, and you'll run the work detail."
The Cajun replied, I'd sooner quit eatin' crawfish den be a traitor. He returned to his work detail, and there he went again:
"Man, I'm gonna told you yankee boys, we kick ya'll's butts so bad down in Chickamauga, if we had a little more amunition, we'd-a run ya'll off the continent." The Camp Commander ordered the Cajun to his HQ again. "Okay", the yankee Commander began, "you're crushing morale in camp. You have to stop".
The Cajun replied, "I don't gonna do it". The yankee Commander said, "Okay, I'll make you sergeant of the guard...AND give you $10,000".
The Cajun said, "$10,000"; Okay, you got a deal". The Cajun was delivered $10,000 cash and a new yankee uniform.
The next day, the Cajun brought the Confederate prisoners out on work detail.
He was standing around with his yankee privates and said,
"Ya'll see dem Confederates, they surely kicked our butts down in Chickamauga!"
Check out One Of Those Days!   Click here: One Of Those Days!
THE   CAJUNS'   WAY

Welcome! 
Come in, and have a REAL cup of coffee Cher! 

COME CHER,
Sit with me, here at my kitchen table. Cher we'll pass a good time.... talking Kids and our Grandest Grandkids!
We'll share news of family and friends. Tell me your favorite Cajun stories.
Ah no! Don't go! We still have our Ancestors to compare.....who knows we may be cousins?
Ayieeee NO! You have CHAUVINS too!
Ah MY COUSIN! You can't go now!
Here! You sit!..let me freshen your cup!

"It is a
Revered thing
To see an ancient
Castle not in decay
But how much more it is
To behold an ancient family
Which has stood against the waves
And the weathers of time"

Author: FRANCIS BACON

PASS A GOOD TIME CHER

Boudreauxs in the sauce factory

There was a factory in Eunice that produced the world's best cajun sauce.
The factory was owned by a Yankee entrepreneur, but it employed a dozen local boys, all related,
brothers, cousins, uncles, all of them Boudreauxs. Well, one day the owner came in and saw Claude
Boudreaux standing on a chair with both arms arched above his head. He was hollering "I'm a lightbulb, me! I'm a lightbulb, me!"
The owner was furious, but he calmly said,
"Get off that chair and get back to work or you're fired." Claude didn't miss a beat, arms arched over his head started hollering again,
"I'm a lightbulb, me! I'm a lightbulb, me!" So the owner had no choice.
"Okay, Claude," he sighed, "you're fired."
Claude got down from the chair, picked up his lunch box and started heading out the door.
The other 11 Boudreauxs grabbed their lunch boxes and started to follow him.
"Wait," the owner said to them,
"I only fired HIM!
I didn't fire the rest of you."
But one Boudreaux turned around and said to the owner,
"Well, Beb, we gotta quit.
Can't be workin witout dat light, no!"

                                           
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I AM COUNTING COUSINS BY THE DOZENS

~CAJUN~ACADIAN~

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CHAUVIN FAMILY
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~Acadian Flag~
"To commemorate the 200th anniversary (1965) of the Acadian exile into Louisiana and to remind us of other important influences on Acadians. Dean Thomas J. Arceneaux of USL, a native of Carencro, designed the Acadian Flag.
   Exiled in 1755 from their native homeland, the Acadians arrived in Louisiana under Spanish rule. Because the Acadians prospered under Spanish rule, a portion of the flag bears the golden arms of Castile, a prosperous European Spanish kingdom, on a red field.
   The second third of the Acadian flag was designed to symbolize the French heritage. The three-petaled (silver on a blue field) fleurs de lis, (flowers of the Iris lily), was taken from the amorial emblem of the kings of France.
   The last third of the Acadian flag, a white field superimposed by a golden star, has a dual meaning to the Acadians. When the first settlers departed France for the new world, the Virgin Mary was highly venerated; a period of great devotion to the Virgin. The King of France, Louis XIII, and the Pope, Pius XI, had declared the Virgin Mary the patroness of the kingdom, (Patronne de Royaume), and Patroness Saint of all the Acadians in Canada, Louisiana and elsewhere. According to history, on the eve of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, August 15, important family groups arrived in America. Therefore, the gold star and the white field have deep religious significance, and was designed to reflect back to Acadians earliest beginnings.
   The gold star on the Acadian flag symbolizes early Acadian patriotism in the new world. The exiled Acadians arrived in Louisiana around the same time the American colonist were struggling to gain their independence from the British crown. When the war began, the Spanish king sent word to Benardo do Galves, Governor-General of Louisiana, to help the new colonist "harass" the British by assembling a "motley band" of 600 Cajuns, blacks, mulattoes, etc. Vividly remembering what the British had done during the expulsion, they succeeded in capturing Fort Bute at Manchac, Fort Baton Rouge, Fort Charlotte at Mobile and Pensacola.
   The golden star not only has religious connotations, but reflects Cajun patriotism as well. Because the Cajuns were citizens of Spain at the time of the American Revolution, their star could not appear on the first American flag. This star on the Acadians flag now serves as a reminder of the Cajun's participation in the American Revolution and of Louisiana's contribution to the beginning of a new nation."

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